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Overview: What is Exploratory Data Analysis?

What is Exploratory Data Analysis

Before you begin your data analysis chores or run that data through a machine learning algorithm, you must clean the data and ensure it’s in a form you can work with. Additionally, you must become aware of any recurring patterns and notable correlations in your data. The process of gaining these deep insights into your data is called exploratory data analysis, or EDA for short.

This article answers the pressing question, “What is exploratory data analysis?” and touches on data collection, data cleaning, and bivariate analysis. We will also discuss the types of exploratory data analysis, the role of EDA Python libraries and the use of EDA for market analysis. We’ll also share a way to get online data analytics training to master this essential practice.

So, let’s start with the basics.

What Is Exploratory Data Analysis?

Exploratory data analysis (or EDA) is a data analytics process used to gain an in-depth understanding of data and learn the different data characteristics, typically with visual means. This lets you better understand your data and spot valuable patterns.

Understanding data in depth is essential before performing data analysis and running it through an algorithm. You need to recognize and understand the patterns in your data and determine which variables are most important and which do not. Furthermore, some variables could correlate with other variables. Additionally, you must recognize any errors in your data.

All these requirements can be met through exploratory data analysis. EDA helps you gather insights and make better sense of your data while removing irregularities and unnecessary values.

Exploratory data analysis offers the following benefits:

  • It helps you prepare your data set for analysis
  • It allows machine learning models to predict your data sets better
  • It yields more accurate results
  • It enables you to choose better machine learning models

Also Read:Data Analytics Applications: Types, Use Cases, and Top Tools

The Goals of Exploratory Data Analysis

Exploratory data analysis’s goals are:

  • Data Cleaning. EDA examines information for errors, missing values and other inconsistencies. It includes techniques like managing missing statistics, records imputation and finding and removing outliers.
  • Descriptive Statistics. EDA uses precise records to recognize variables’ critical distribution, tendency and variability. It typically uses measures like median, mode, suggest, preferred deviation, range and percentiles.
  • Data Visualization. EDA uses visual techniques to represent statistics graphically. Visualizations composed of box plots, histograms, scatter plots, heatmaps, line plots and bar charts help identify relationships, styles, and trends within the facts.
  • Feature Engineering. EDA lets data analysts explore different variables and their adjustments to develop new functions or gather meaningful insights. Feature engineering can involve binning, scaling, encoding expressed variables, normalization and creating interplay or derived variables.
  • Correlation and Relationships. EDA allows data analysts to discover the relationships and dependencies between variables. It employs techniques such as scatter plots, correlation analysis and pass-tabulations to provide insights into the power and direction of relationships between multiple variables.
  • Data Segmentation. EDA can divide information into significant segments based on established standards or traits. This segmentation provides insights into unique subgroups in the information and may result in extra-focused analysis.
  • Hypothesis Generation. EDA helps generate hypotheses or study questions entirely based on preliminary data exploration.
  • Data Quality Assessment. EDA assesses information quality. It involves checking records for consistency, integrity and accuracy to ensure the information is suitable for analysis.

Dissecting the Steps in Exploratory Data Analysis

There are four primary steps in EDA.

  • Data Collection. Data collection is an integral part of exploratory data analysis. The term refers to finding and loading data into a system. Good, solid, reliable data can be found on many public sites or purchased from private organizations. Reliable sites for data collection include GitHub, Kaggle and Machine Learning Repository.
  • Data Cleaning. Data cleaning means removing unwanted values and variables from data sets and eliminating irregularities. These anomalies can skew the data disproportionately, adversely affecting the results. Steps that can be used to clean data include:
    • Removing missing outliers, values and unnecessary rows and columns.
    • Reindexing and reformatting the data.
  • Univariate Analysis. In univariate analysis, data analysts analyze the data of only one variable. A data set variable refers to a single feature or column. You can accomplish this with graphical or non-graphical methods by finding specific mathematical values in the data. A sample of visual methods include:
    • Boxplots. The information here is represented in the form of boxes.
    • Histograms. Bar plots where the data frequency is represented by rectangle bars.
  • Bivariate Analysis. This step involves using two variables and comparing them. This way, you can discover how one feature affects the other. It is accomplished with scatter plots, which plot the individual data points or correlation matrices that plot correlations. Additionally, you can also use boxplots. Boxplots are graphs that provide a visual indication of how a data set’s minimum (0th percentile), first quartile (25th percentile), median (50th percentile), third quartile (75th percentile), maximum (100th percentile) and outlier values are spread out and how they compare to each other.

Also Read:Data Analytics in Business: A Complete Overview

The Types of Exploratory Data Analysis

Exploratory data analysis comes in many different forms. Let’s look at a collection of EDAs and, as you do so, consider which ones may benefit you and your organization most.

  • Bivariate Analysis. Bivariate evaluation explores the connection between variables, allowing analysts to locate associations, correlations and dependencies between pairs of variables. Typical bivariate analysis strategies include correlation matrices, scatter plots, line plots and move-tabulation.
  • Data Cleaning. EDA involves checking the information for errors, missing values and inconsistencies. It involves techniques such as managing missing statistics, records imputation and tracking down and removing outliers.
  • Data Visualization. Data visualization is essential to EDA, creating visible representations of statistics to facilitate exploration and understanding. Various visualization techniques include bar charts, line plots, histograms, scatter plots, heatmaps and interactive dashboards.
  • Descriptive Statistics. EDA uses exact records to recognize a variable’s vital tendency, variability, and distribution. EDA employs median, suggest, mode, range, preferred deviation, and percentiles.
  • Missing Data Analysis. Missing information is a common data set issue and can affect the evaluation’s reliability and validity. Missing statistics analysis involves finding the missing values, recognizing patterns that cause missing data and using appropriate techniques to deal with missing data.
  • Multivariate Analysis. Multivariate analysis expands bivariate evaluation to cover more than variables, dealing with complex interactions and dependencies found in multiple variables in a record set. Multivariate analysis relies on techniques like aspect analysis, heatmaps, parallel coordinates and primary component analysis (PCA).
  • Outlier Analysis. Outliers are statistics that drastically deviate from the general fact sample. Outlier analysis involves identifying and becoming aware of outliers and their impact on the analysis. Outlier evaluation uses box plots, clustering algorithms, scatter plots and z-rankings.
  • Time Series Analysis. Time series analysis is typically applied to statistics sets with a temporal component. Time collection evaluation involves inspecting and modeling styles, traits, and seasonality inside the statistics over the years. Time series analysis employs autocorrelation, line plots, transferring averages, and ARIMA (AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average) fashions.

Performing Exploratory Data Analysis with Python Libraries

In Python, EDA is an essential step in data analysis, involving exploring, studying and visualizing information to extract crucial insights. It uses statistical tools and visualizations to find trends, patterns and relationships within the data. This process helps formulate hypotheses and guide additional investigations.

Python offers data analysts robust EDA tools thanks to its diverse library ecosystem, which includes Matplotlib, NumPy, Pandas, Seaborn, and Plotly. This procedure is essential in the data science pipeline, improving data comprehension and offering information for future modeling decisions.

Exploratory data analysis is the primary step in many data analysis processes. It helps analysts visualize patterns, characteristics, and relationships between variables.

Here’s a quick overview of the steps needed to conduct EDA with Python:

  • Import the required libraries for EDA
  • Load the data into the data frame
  • Check the types of data
  • Drop irrelevant columns
  • Rename the columns
  • Drop the duplicate rows
  • Drop the missing or null values
  • Detect outliers
  • Plot different features against one another (scatter) and frequency (histogram)

You can master data analytics with Python through an online data analytics program.

Also Read: Industry Spotlight: Data Analytics in Healthcare

Do You Want a Greater Understanding of Analytics?

If you’re interested in enhancing your understanding of data analysis and analytics, check out this data analytics bootcamp. You will receive the instruction and valuable skills needed to help you pursue a career in the rapidly growing field of data analytics. shows that data scientists earn an annual average salary of $129,127. Sign up for this 24-week bootcamp and enrich your data processing skills.


Q: What is meant by exploratory data analysis?
A: EDA is a data analytics process used to gain an in-depth understanding of data and learn the different data characteristics, typically with visual means.

Q: Why do we use EDA?
A: We use EDA to:

  • Clean data
  • Visualize data
  • Generate hypotheses
  • Discover correlations and relationships

Q: What is an exploratory data analysis example?
A: An explanatory analysis of a company’s Google Analytics data may include a closer look at why its top-performing pages attract so much traffic and how this information could be used as recommendations for increasing goal completions.

Q: Are EDA and ETL the same?
A: No. EDA explores and summarizes data to gain insights, while ETL (short for extract, transform, load) extracts, transforms and loads data between systems.

Q: What graphs are typically used in EDA?
A: EDA typically uses:

  • Box plots
  • Heatmaps
  • Histograms
  • Scatter plots
  • Smoothed density estimates

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